There is an increased evidence for the participation of free radicals in the etiology of various diseases like cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, aging1 etc. A free radical is defined as any atom or molecule possessing unpaired electrons. The primary oxygen derived free radicals are superoxide anion (O2·), hydroxyl (OH·), hydroperoxyl (OOH·), peroxyl (ROO·) and alkoxyl (RO·) radicals and non free radicals are hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hypochlorous acid (HOCl), ozone (O3) and singlet oxygen (1/2O2). These reactive intermediates are collectively termed as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Similarly, reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are mainly nitric oxide (NO·), peroxynitrite (ONOO·) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Free radicals can cause a wide range of toxic oxidative reactions like initiation of the peroxidation of the membrane lipids leading to the accumulation of lipid peroxides, direct inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, fragmentation or random cross linking of molecules like DNA, enzymes and proteins which ultimately leads to cell death12. ROS can be formed in living organisms by both endogenous and exogenous sources. Endogenous sources of free radicals include normal aerobic respiration, peroxisomes and stimulation of polymorphonuclear leucocytes and macrophages. The exogenous sources include ionizing radiation, tobacco smoke, pollutants, pesticides and organic solvents18. Antioxidants are agents which scavenge the free radicals and prevent the damage caused by them. They can greatly reduce the damage due to oxidants by neutralizing the free radicals before they can attack the cells and prevent damage to lipids, proteins, enzymes, carbohydrates and DNA5. Antioxidants can be classified into two major classes i.e., enzymatic and non-enzymatic. The enzymatic antioxidants are produced endogenously and include superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. The non-enzymatic antioxidants include tocopherols, carotenoids, ascorbic acid, flavonoids and tannins which are obtained from natural plant. A wide range of antioxidants from both natural and synthetic origin has been proposed for use in the treatment of various human diseases3. There are some synthetic antioxidant compounds such as butylated hydroxytoluene, butylated hydroxyanisole and tertiary butylhydroquinone which are commonly used in processed foods. However, it has been suggested that these compounds have shown toxic effects like liver damage and mutagenesis8. Flavonoids and other phenolic compounds of plant origin have been reported as scavengers of free radicals7. Hence, nowadays search for natural antioxidant source is gaining much importance.
A considerable number of bacteria produce non photosynthetic coloured compounds known as Pigments. This is especially true of the strictly aerobic species. Many colour are produced covering the entire range of the chromatic spectrum40. Subsequent studies of the S. aureus pigment have unraveled an elaborate biosynthetic pathway that produces a series of carotenoids41. Similar carotenoids produced in dietary fruits and vegetables are well recognized as potent antioxidants by virtue of their free-radical scavenging properties and exceptional ability to quench singlet oxygen42. We hypothesized. That S. aureus could utilize its golden carotenoid pigment to resist oxidant-based clearance mechanisms of the host innate immune system.
An increasing number of investigations have been carried out to find antioxidative drugs, which not only prolong the shelf life of food products but also participate as radical scavengers in living organism’s .As with other synthetic food additives, commercial antioxidants have been criticized, mainly due to possible toxic effects. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the antioxidative activity of natural compounds. They can be an alternative to the use of synthetic compounds in food and pharmaceutical technology or serve as lead compounds for the development of new drugs with the prospect of improving the treatment of various disorders.
1. Bandyopadhyay, U., Das, A. and Bannerjee, R. K. (1999). Reactive oxygen species: Oxygen damage and pathogenesis. Curr Sci., 77(5): 658-666.
2. Cao, G., Sofic, E. and Prior, R.L. (1997). Antioxidant and pro-oxidant behaviour of flavonoids: structure activity relationships. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 22: 749-760.
3. Cuzzocrea, S., Riley, D.P., Caputi, A.P. and Salvemini, D. (2001). Antioxidant therapy: A new pharmacological approach in shock, inflammation and ischemia/reperfusion injury. Pharmacol. Rev., 53: 135-159.
4. Duh, P.D., Tu, Y.Y. and Yen. (1999). Antioxidant activty of water extract of harng Jyur (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat). Lebens. Wiss. U. Technol., 32: 269-277.
5. Fang, Y., Yang, S. and Wu, G. (2002). Free radicals, antioxidants and nutrition. Nutrition, 18: 872-879.
6. Fejes, S., Blazovics, A., Lugasi, A., Lemberkovics, E., Petri, G. and Kery, A. (2000). In vitro antioxidant activity of Anthriscus cerefolium L. (Hoffm.) extracts. J. Ethnopharmacol., 69: 259-265.
7. Formica, J.V. and Regelson, W. (1995). Review of the biology of quercetin and related bioflavonoids. Food Chem. Toxicol., 33: 1061-1080.
8. Grice, H.C. (1986). Safety evaluation of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in the liver, lung and gastrointestinal tract. Food Chem. Toxicol., 24: 1127-1130.
9. Gulcin, I., Oktay, M., Kufrevioglu, I. and Aslam, A. (2002). Determination of antioxidant activity of lichen Cetraria islandica (L) Ach. J. Ethnopharmacol., 79: 325-329.
10. Gutierrez, R.M.P., Luna, H.H. and Garrido, S.H. (2006). Antioxidant activity of Tagates erecta essential oil. J. Chil. Chem. Soc., 51: 883-886.
11. Halliwell, B. (1991). Reactive oxygen species in living systems: Source, biochemistry and role in human disease. Am. J. Med., 91: 14-22.
12. Halliwell, B. and Gutteridge, J.M.C. (1999). Free radicals in Biology and Medicine, 3rd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 23-27.
13. Halliwell, B., Gutteridge, J.M.C. and Arouma, O.I. (1987). The deoxyribose method: a simple test tube assay for the determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal.Biochem., 165: 215-219.
14. Hsu, C. (2006). Antioxidant activity of extract from Polygonum aviculare L. Biol. Res., 39: 281-288.
15. Huang, D., Ou, B. and Proir, R.L. (2005). The chemistry behind the antioxidant capacity assays. J.Agric. Food Chem., 53: 1841-1856.
16. Huang, S. and Kuo, J.C. (2000). Concentrations and antioxidant activity of Anserine and Carnosine in poultry meat extracts treated with demineralization and papain. Proc. Natl. Sci. Counc. ROC. (B)., 24(4): 193-201.
17. Ilavarasan, R., Mallika, M. and Venkataraman, S. (2005). Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Cassia fistula Linn. bark extracts. Afr. J. Trad. CAM., 2 (1): 70-85.
18. Irshad, M. and Chaudhuri, P.S. (2002). Oxidant-antioxidant system: Role and significance in human body. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 40: 1233-1239.
19. Jayaprakasha, G.K., Jena, B.S., Negi, P.S. and Sakariah, K.K. (2002). Evaluation of antioxidant activities and antimutagenicity of turmeric oil: A byproduct from curcumin production. Z. Naturforsch., 57c: 828-835.
20. Kirthikar, K.R. and Basu, B.D. (1987). Indian Medicnal Plants, 2nd ed. International Book Distributors, Dehradun, pp. 1151-1154.
21. Lee, J., Koo, N. and Min, D.B. (2004). Reactive oxygen species, aging and antioxidative nutraceuticals. CRFSFS., 3: 21-33.
22. Liu, F. and Ng,T.B. (2000). Antioxidative and free radical scavenging activities of selected medicinal herbs. Life Sci., 66: 725-735. 73
23. Marcocci, P.L., Sckaki, A. and Albert, G.M. (1994). Antioxidant action of Ginkgo biloba extracts EGP761. Methods Enzymol., 234: 462-475.
24. Meir, S., Kanner, J., Akiri, B. and Hadar, S.P. (1995). Determination and involvement of aqueous reducing compounds in oxidative systems of various senescing leaves. J. Agric. Food Chem., 43: 1813-1817.
25. Mensor, L.L., Menezes, F.S., Leitao, G.G., Reis, A.S., dos Santos, T.C. and Coube, C.S. (2001). Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytother. Res., 15:127-130.
26. Nanjo, F., Goto, K., Seto, R., Suzuki, M., Sakai, M. and Hara, Y. (1996). Scavenging effects of tea catechins and their derivatives on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical. Free Radic. Biol. Med., 21: 895-902.
27. Ng, T.B., Liu, F., Lu, Y., Cheng, C.H.K. and Wang, Z. (2003). Antioxidant activity of compounds from the medicinal herb Aster tataricus. Compar. Biochem. Physiol. Part C., 136: 109-115.
28. Oktay, M., Gulcin, I. and Kufrevioglu. (2003). Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. Lebensm.-Wiss. U.-Technol., 33: 263-271.
29. Prieto, P., Pineda, M. and Aguilar, M. (1999). Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal. Biochem., 269: 337-341.
30. Rice-Evans, C.A., Miller, N.J. and Paganga, G. (1997). Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci. Rev., 2: 152-159.
31. Sreejayan, N. and Roa, M.N.A. (1997). Nitric oxide scavenging by curcuminoids. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 49: 105-107.
32. Umamaheswari, M., Asokkumar, K., Somasundaram, A., Sivashanmugam, T., Subhadradevi, V. and Ravi, T.K. (2007). Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of some Indian medical plants. J. Ethnopharmacol., 109: 547-551.
33. Venkateswaran, S. and Pari, L., 2003. Effect of Coccinia indica leaves on antioxidant status in streptazotocininduced diabetic rats. J. Ethnopharmacol., 84(2-3):163-168.
34. Wasantwisut, E. and Viriyapanich, T. (2003). Ivy gourd (Coccinia grandis Voigt, Coccinia cardifolia, Coccinia indica) in human nutrition and traditional applications. In: Simopoulous, A.P., Gopalan, C., eds. Plants in Human Health and Nutrition Policy: World Reviews of Nutrition and Dietics. Karger, Basel, pp. 60-66.
35. Wichi, H.P. (1988). Enhanced tumour development by butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) from the prospective of effect on forestomach and oesophageal squamous epithelium. Food Chem. Toxicol., 26: 717-723.
36. Yamaguchi, F., Ariga, T., Yoshimara, Y. and Nakazawa, H. (2000). Antioxidant and antiglycation of carcinol from Garcina indica fruit rind. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48: 180-185.
37. Yen, G.C., Duh, P.D. and Tsai, C.L. (1993). Relationship between antioxidant activity and maturity of peanut hulls. J. Agric. Food Chem., 41: 67-70.
38. Yen, G.H. and Chen, H.Y. (1995). Antioxidant activity of various tea extracts in relation to their antimutagenicity. J. Agric. Food Chem., 43: 27-32.
39. Yildrim, A., Oktay, M. and Bilaloglu, V. (2001). The antioxidant activity of the leaves of Cydonia vulgaris. Turk. J. Med. Sci.,31:23-27.
40. Salle A.J. (1974)”Fundamental Principle of Bacteriology” TMH ED
41. Altas R. M. Porks L.C. (1993), “Handbook of Microbiological Media” CRC Press Inc.London.
42. John h. Marshall* and Gregory j wilmoth “pigments of staphylococcus aureus, a series of triterpenoid carotenoids” journal of bacteriology, sept. 1981, p. 900-913
43. Krinsky, N.I. 1993. Actions of carotenoids in biological systems. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 13:561–587.
44. Sibeyn et. al. “process for the recovery of crystalline beta carotene and Lycopene from B. trispora” US 2002/0025548A1, feb28 2002